Tactile 2D measurement was and is sufficient for many application and production processes, and still represents the standard in surface quality measurement to a certain extent. For measurement tasks that go beyond a classic profile analysis of the surface, the methods of 3D metrology offer themselves. This includes optical measurement methods that enable non-contact and two-dimensional measurement of technically complex surfaces and sensitive materials. 3D metrology is neither superior nor inferior to 2D metrology, it is much more a question of the application. Possible 3D surface measurement methods include stylus-based, optical point/line sensor-based, and areal three-dimensional. Optical 3D methods are necessary, for example, if a measurement object has a sensitive surface or does not have a homogeneous structure. Coated, porous, sticky or soft surfaces can also be measured non-destructively and independently of the material using optical methods of 3D metrology. 3D metrology also includes other imaging methods such as industrial computed tomography. With industrial CT, even internal areas can be analyzed. 3D metrology is used in large parts of industry and is a reliable tool for modern development, manufacturing and control processes.